Motivational Intervention of Obesity in Primary Care Through Physical Activity Program
Keywords:Obesity, Physical Activity, Telemedicine, Motivational Intervention
Summary: Obesity and overweight are significant public health problems, worldwide. Hence, there is the importance of developing and applying strategies that reduce weight in this population. We set out to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity intervention with three different approaches—one of them with a platform that promotes physical activity.
Methods: Randomized, controlled, parallel clinical trial that compared three arms, multicenter study in overweight or obese patients, with a 12-month follow-up. The patients were randomized into three groups: Intervention in the primary care center with intervention G1: Control group, which received the usual recommendations of losing weight following the SEEDO 2000 (Sociedad Española para el Estudio de la Obesidad) Consensus, G2: Motivational intervention of obesity (IMOAP) with a trained nurse and small periodic work groups, and G3: IMOAP adding the use of a digital platform to record physical activity, monitors it, and, in turn, favors the practice of this (aka iwopi: the concept that physical activity has a positive impact beyond the activity). Variables collected included: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, lipid parameters, blood pressure, and glycosylated hemoglobin. After the interventions, clinical relevance indicators were studied. Relative risk (RR), absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction (RRR), and number needed to treat (NNT), both for intention to treat and for biological efficacy.
Results: Cholesterol levels in three groups were reduced. The BMI showed a general average reduction. Total cholesterol levels were reduced in all groups, with the largest decrease in G3. Triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in two groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin showed a slight decrease that did not reach a statistically significant value.
Conclusions: The digital health platform that stimulates physical activity added to an interventionist motivation in patients with overweight or obesity is a significant additional benefit in terms of weight loss results, BMI reduction, and lipid profile in patients affected by overweight or obesity, and a most effective cost.
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